Border Collie Goniodysgenesis Database


For the purpose of this site, below is a brief explanation of the meanings of terms in these databases.

  • Gonioscopy  =  A technique used to evaluate the iridocorneal angle, which will determine the etiology of a glaucoma or a predisposition for glaucoma. 

  • Goniodysgenesis = refers to abnormal and incomplete development of the intraocular fluid egrss channels inside the eye. This condition is common in dogs with primary glaucoma (basset hounds and many other breeds). Normal intraocular fluid (aqueous humor) is produced inside the eye by the ciliary body (faucet) and then flows around the lens, through the pupil and into the drainage angle (drain) in the front of the eye. The pectinate ligaments are small channels that form tunnels for fluid to drain from the eye. If an animal has goniodysgenesis, the flow holes are compromised and the animal may have an increased glaucoma risk. 
  • Affected = A dog listed on this site as "Affected" means that the dog has undergone a gonioscopy test by a recognised opthalmic specialist and has some abnormality to exclude the dog from being given a "normal or unaffected" physical status for it's eyes.  In some cases certain opthalmologists will grade the eyes to show the level of abnormality. Grades are from 1 - 5, and these grades are specifically used by Prof. Peter Bedford in the UK. In other countries the words: "mild"  "moderate" and "severe" are used.
    :  Not all vets will "grade" the result.    

    A dog that is listed as "Affected" does not necessarily mean that the dog has, or will develop Glaucoma. At present, there is no worldwide standardisation of wording given on eye examination sheets so the usage of the words "affected" or "unaffected" are those adopted in the UK. In other countries, words as "clear" or "normal" may be preferred.   To save confusion over the phenotype or genotype of any given dog, the word "clear" is not used in these databases. Should a DNA test become available to clarify a dog's genotype, the word clear will be used in that context.

    It should be remembered that at present we only have the possibility of defining whether a dog is normal or not by a physical eye examination and this in no way declares the genetic status of dog, or it's chance of passing on the condition to it's offspring.  
  • Grades = You will see where some dogs have been declared "Affected" they are given a grading from 1-5 (see above) The higher the grade (5) the more chance the dog has of developing Glaucoma.
  • Unaffected = Simply means that the dog has passed a physical eye test with no obvious abnormalities. It does not necessarily mean that the dog is genetically clear. (see above)
  • Gonioscopy testing.  There is a detailed pamphlet on this and other eye diseases on the British Veterinary Association website, which can be downloaded from the link below.  The BVA recommends that a gonioscopy test is best performed from 5-7 months at the earliest, depending on eye development. Some vets will test at 3 months, but any younger is not normally advised. BVA pamplet link
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